Camden Crop News: October 2022
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In this issue of the Camden Crop News newsletter you will find recommendations for wheat planting, results from the 2022 Northeast Ag Expo Small Grains Field Day wheat trials, as well as Dr. Heiniger’s weather predictions. In addition, I share an article from Dr. Seth Naeve (University of Minnesota) and Dr. Shawn Conley(University of Wisconsin) regarding a situation that exists with off-colored seed coats and Enlist E3 soybeans in some varieties and some environments. Also, we will be holding a Nickels for Know How vote on November 17th and I encourage all farmers to vote.
If you have questions regarding any of the information shared here or if I can be of assistance with anything farming related, give me a call at the Extension Office: 331-7630. Your questions and comments are important to me.
Soybeans of Other Colors (SBOC): One More Thing to Think About This Fall?
Fall is a time when farmers literally reap the production of their year’s efforts, but fall can be a crazy and chaotic time as well. Each year offers new challenges, and this one will be no different.
Farmers in the Midwest should be aware of an issue in the production system that may affect how their soybean deliveries may be handled. The issue is related to soybean seed coat color and it is important that producers are aware of this prior to harvest.
Soybean seed coats can vary in color based on genetics of the seed, the environment where they are produced, or through infections by disease-causing organisms. The presence of colored seed coats is not uncommon and the U.S. Federal Grain Inspection Service (FGIS) includes a measure of seed coat color in its soybean grading standards. U.S. #1 yellow soybeans are allowed up to 1% soybeans of other colors (SBOC), a general term to note any soybean with off-colored seed coats. U.S. #2 soybeans may contain up to 2% SBOC.
Following the 2021 harvest season, it became clear that Enlist E3® soybeans can produce soybean seed containing some off-colored soybeans, and the percentage of the seed with this SBOC appearance can be very large. Not all varieties produce this trait and this trait may not express itself in all fields.
By May of 2022, around 32% of FGIS soybean certificates included SBOC of greater than 1%. So, nearly 1/3 of soybean samples did not make U.S. #1 yellow soybeans due to off-colored soybeans. In previous years, fewer than 1% of soybean certificates failed to make U.S. #1 due to SBOC. More information found at the GIAC June 2022 Meeting Website.
From a practical standpoint, seed coat color is unlikely to have any effect on the quality of soybean meal or oil produced from these soybeans. However, significant quantities of U.S. soybeans are exported for food use. The presence of these off-colored seeds in shipments destined for food use may lead to rejections at either the origin or destination of these shipments. This increases the risk for all in the value chain.
Currently, it appears that U.S. soybean processors will be unlikely to implement dockage on soybeans containing over 1% SBOC. However, elevators that have connections to overseas markets are likely to segregate soybeans by Enlist E3® vs. other traits. While direct dockage to producers may be uncommon, it is very possible that basis levels will be adjusted based on the local supply and demand of soybeans for processing and soybeans for export. Regardless of direct impacts, the segregation of commodity soybeans into different markets reduces efficiencies and will lead to additional costs that must be borne by buyers or sellers of soybean.
If concerned, farmers should consider reaching out before harvest starts to their local elevators and/or seed dealers to determine how this issue may be handled locally.
Wheat Planting 2023 is Here!
By Angela Post, Small Grains Extension Specialist
It is mid-October and wheat drills are starting to move across fields in North Carolina. For most of the state we are ahead of the optimum planting window. As you prepare for planting remember to plant your latest maturing lines first and wait several days to move to medium varieties and then to early ones at the end of the window. The weather outlook is looking good for fall planting with plenty of dry weather and mild temperatures ahead, though it may be cooler than average during emergence.
Wheat seed is in good supply if you have not already secured seed, though you may be limited in variety selection at this point in the process. Seed quality is also very good to excellent this year for seed sourced from the mid-Atlantic region. I encourage growers to select new certified seed to plant for the 2023 season and include at least a fungicide seed treatment to protect young seedlings for the first few weeks after emergence. Remember that you are required to use certified seed for NC State yield contest entries.
Use the following table from the Small Grain Production Guide to assist in selecting your population before planting and converting that population to seeds/acre to plant. Most growers should start with a population of 1.5 to 1.6 million seeds per acre in their optimum planting window and increase the population as the planting season progresses. A few areas of the state will start with very low populations (1.3-1.4 million seeds/acre) very early in the window. These growers maintain a higher intensity of management throughout the season to manage high yield from a lower population.
Make sure to give your new wheat crop a good foundation by applying nitrogen at planting. At least 30 pounds of nitrogen are recommended at or near planting to promote even germination and emergence and to support early tillering. Up front nitrogen can be in the form of a synthetic fertilizer or as animal manures. If you are using animal waste as your nitrogen source, be sure to get an analysis of the material to determine the appropriate application rate. Early applications can be the difference between a mediocre crop and an excellent crop. As always, please be in touch with your local cooperative extension office if you have any questions during the planting season.
2022 Small Grains Field Day Test Results
The Northeast Ag Expo team has compiled the test results from the 2022 Small Grains Field Day. If you would like a hard copy please contact our office and we will print one for you.
Dr. Heiniger’s Weather Prediction
Nickels For Know-How Referendum
The Camden County Nickels for Know-How Referendum will be held on Thursday, November 17, 2022. A polling place has been established in the county. The polling location will be at the N.C. Cooperative Extension-Camden Center, located at 120 NC Highway 343 North, Camden.
The referendum is being held to let users and producers of feed or fertilizer decide if they wish to continue the self-assessment program. This program has been in place since 1948, and the law requires that a new referendum be held every six years. A 2/3 favorable vote will mean that growers are willing to continue to assess themselves to support agricultural research and education. The assessment is fifteen cents per hundred pounds on feed and fertilizer produced in North Carolina. The funds, about $1.4 million annually, are collected by the North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services and then allocated by the NC Carolina Agricultural Foundation, Inc.’s 148 volunteer Board of Directors to support agricultural research and extension projects at North Carolina State University benefitting agriculture in North Carolina. For more information on the referendum, please call your N.C. Cooperative Extension County Center at (252) 331-7630.